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World War I (1914 - 1918) The first World War (1914-1918) is often referred to as a people's war as it involved the total commitment by civilians as well as military personnel. This war led to revolution (Russia) saw a decline of Empires (Austria-Hungary) sowed the seeds of future conflict (WWII) set the stage for an age of violence Prelude to War: The assassination on 28 June 1914, of Archduke Francis Ferdinand heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was viewed as an attack upon the Austria-Hungary State. The ruling monarch was Francis Joseph aged 84. Assassin was a 19 year old Bosnian student (Gavrilo Princip) Carried out in Sarajevo (Bosnia) Result of a plot instigated in Belgrade, Serbia by a secret society Union or Death (Black Hand) There were two failed attempts at assassination on that day The Archduke's car made a wrong turn into the Plaza and was making a slow backing. Gavrilo Princip was by coincidence at the location and fired the shots into the car. Gavrilo Princip o tried to shoot himself after killing Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie o Princip was captured o There was a 12-day murder trial in Sarajevo in October 1914 o sentenced to 20 years o Princip was probably tubercular before his imprisonment o had an arm amputated (disease spread to the bone) o Died in hospital in April 1918. Opposition to Ferdinand There was opposition to Ferdinand that stemmed from his support to reorganize the Hapsburg Monarchy o the plan would change the Duel Monarchy into Triple Monarchy o this would create a third semi-independent region of Slavs o opposed by Serbian nationalists as it would include Slovene and Croatian kinsmen An assassination of Ferdinand before he could become emperor would prevent the creation of the Triple Monarchy Austrian ultimatum to Serbia: On July 23rd (after a three week delay) Austria sent Serbia the ultimatum Three week delay a result of o Indecision o an unwillingness to mobilize before harvest complete There were eleven demands that included o the suppression by Serbia of anti-Austrian newspapers o elimination of secret societies o elimination from the Serbian Government and military all anti-Austrian elements o acceptance of collaboration from Austrian officials July 25th - Serbia rejects one demand, accepts five Austria not satisfied Three hours before the Serbian Government replied Austria mobilized Russia and France July 18. 1914 o Russia warned Austria that it would not tolerate a humiliation of Serbia July 20th o France warns Austria that Russia has an ally in France July 24th o Russia tells Germany that it will come to the aid of Serbia Position of Germany is ambiguous Germany made no threats until Russian action causes alarm Believed that a stern punishment was deserved by Serbia On July 6th gave Austria its commitment to treaty obligations Hoped that a swift response from Austria against Serbia would occur before Russia could respond Treaties: Central Powers: (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey) Triple Entente: (Britain and the British Empire, France, and Russia) Allies: Triple Entente with 27 Allied and Associated powers, including Italy and, towards the end of the war, the USA. Duel Alliance [1879] Germany and Austria-Hungary Fear of Russian expansion Each would assist the other if attacked by Russia If attacked by another power the other would remain neutral No obligation if either were an aggressor Triple Alliance [1882] Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy Bismarck of Germany let France know the annexation of Tunisia acceptable Italy outraged (wanted it herself) Joins the Alliance (against France) Terms: if Italy or Germany was attacked by France, each would aid the other; (if Austria was attacked by Russia, Italy would remain neutral, although Austria would aid Italy if she was attacked by France; if one of the parties was attacked by two or more powers, the others were to come to her aid; and Austria and Germany agreed that in no case would the Treaty operate against Britain Both France and Russia aware of the agreement against them Reinsurance Treaty [1887] Secret German treaty with Russia (Austria unaware) If either involved in a war the other would remain neutral except if Germany attacked France or if Russia attacked Austria-Hungary. Germany gives diplomatic support to Russian ambition in the Balkans Treaty a result of a fear of Austria Duel Entente [1894] France and Russia if France was attacked by Germany or Germany and her ally (Italy) Russia would aid France; if Russia was attacked by Germany or Germany and her ally (Austria), France would aid Russia; if one or more members of the Triple Alliance mobilized -- they would mobilize to help one another automatically; Britain found herself diplomatically isolated. followed the policy of 'splendid isolation', (avoid involvement in European affairs) Entente Cordiale [1904] France recognized Egypt and the Sudan as British sphere of influence Britain recognised Morocco as French sphere of influence; support each other if their spheres of influence were challenged by a third power. Anglo-Russian Entente [1907] Britain and Russia agreed to settle colonial disputes Persia was divided into three parts: the north kept by Russia the south kept by Britain, and the central was to remain under Persian control as a buffer zone. Russia renounced her interests in Afghanistan. both to enjoy equal trading rights Britain gained control of the foreign policy in Afghanistan. Both recognized China's claim over Tibet. By 1914 the European powers had aligned themselves into two rival camps: The Triple Entente, and the The Triple Alliance. The Alliance System is seen as a cause of the War made in secret produced distrust and suspicion prevented diplomats finding suitable solutions always made on a war-footing that heightened the war tension led to an arms race In 1907, Germany built nine (battleships) Britain built eighteen. a small dispute concerning one power might lead to a war involving all powers. while originally defensive, by1910, many alliances were of national aggression, chances of war doubled. After the formation of the Triple Entente, Germany began to feel the threat to security. ("encirclement") Mobilization and War - 1914 July 1914 28th - Austria (backed by Germany declares war on Serbia August 1914 1st - Russia mobilized 2nd - Germany occupies Luxembourg 3rd - Germany declares war on France 4th - Germany invades Belgium 4th - England declares war on Germany The 1839 Treaty of London guaranteed neutrality of Belgium o British trade depended upon the ports of Dunkirk and Calais Britain sends 1000 men (expeditionary force) to France and Belgium to help hold the front line Canada, as part of the British Empire in 1914 is at war (August 4th, 1914)
Trenches World War I
The Background to World War I (1914 - 1918)
Background to World War I 1914-1918